Renoprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors - is hemodynamics the key point?

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftReviewForskningfagfællebedømt

Two novel treatments for diabetic kidney disease have emerged after decades with little progression. Both agents were developed for improved glycemic control in patients with type-2 diabetes. However, large clinical trials showed renoprotective effects beyond their ability to lower plasma glucose levels, body weight, and blood pressure. How this renal protection occurs is unknown. We will discuss their physiological effects, with special focus on the renal effects. We discuss how these drugs affect the function of the diabetic and nondiabetic kidneys to elucidate mechanisms by which the renoprotection could arise. Diabetic kidney disease affects the glomerular capillaries, which are usually protected by the renal autoregulatory mechanisms, the myogenic response, and the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism. Animal models with reduced renal autoregulatory capacity develop chronic kidney disease. Despite different cellular targets, both drugs are suspected to affect renal hemodynamics through changes in the renal autoregulatory mechanisms. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) exert a direct vasodilatory effect on the afferent arteriole (AA) positioned just before the glomerulus. Paradoxically, this effect is expected to increase glomerular capillary pressure, causing glomerular injury. In contrast, the sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are believed to activate the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism to elicit vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole. Because of their opposing effects on the renal afferent arterioles, it appears unlikely that their renoprotective effects can be explained by common effects of renal hemodynamics, but both drugs appear to add protection to the kidney beyond what can be obtained with classical treatment targeted at lowering blood glucose levels and blood pressure.
TidsskriftAmerican Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology
Sider (fra-til)C243–C256
StatusUdgivet - 1 jul. 2023

ID: 357840907