The role of aetiology in cardiac manifestations of chronic kidney disease: the CPH-CKD ECHO study

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Purpose: We investigated the associations between cardiac parameters and aetiologies of CKD in an exploratory study. Methods: The study population consisted of 883 participants, 174 controls and 709 patients with aetiologies of CKD including diabetic nephropathy/renovascular KD in diabetes mellitus, hypertensive/renovascular nephropathy, tubulointerstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis/vasculitis, polycystic KD (PKD), and CKD of unknown origin. Echocardiographic measures included left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, global longitudinal, area, and radial strain, E/e’ ratio, and LV mass index. These were compared between each aetiological group and controls in unadjusted and adjusted analysis. Results: In unadjusted analysis, patients with diabetic nephropathy/renovascular KD in diabetes mellitus, had impaired LV ejection fraction (Median [IQR]: 56% [49.9,60.69] vs. 60.8% [57.7,64.1]), global longitudinal (mean ± SD: 13.1 ± 3.5% vs. 15.5 ± 2.6%), area (24.1 ± 5.8% vs. 28.5 ± 4.2%), and radial strain (36.2 ± 11.2% vs. 44.1 ± 9.7%), and increased LV mass index (89.1 g/m2 [71.8,104.9] vs. 69,0 g/m2 [57.9,80.8]) and E/e’ ratio (10.6 [8.5,12.6] vs. 7 [5.8,8.3], p < 0.001 for all) compared with controls. Associations were similar for CKD of unknown origin. Patients with hypertensive/renovascular nephropathy had impaired global longitudinal and area strain, and higher E/e’ ratio. Patients with glomerulonephritis/vasculitis had higher LV mass index, while patients with PKD had better global longitudinal strain than controls. All findings remained significant in adjusted analysis, except for the impaired global longitudinal strain in hypertensive/renovascular nephropathy. Conclusion: Glomerulonephritis/vasculitis, hypertensive/renovascular nephropathy, CKD of unknown origin, and diabetic nephropathy/renovascular KD in diabetes mellitus were increasingly associated with adverse cardiac findings, while PKD and tubulointerstitial nephritis were not. Aetiology might play a role regarding the cardiac manifestations of CKD. Graphical Abstract: A graphical summary of the study population and main results. Abbreviations: DN = Diabetic nephropathy and renovascular kidney disease in diabetes mellitus, PKD = Polycystic kidney disease, CKDu = Chronic kidney disease of unknown origin, LVEF = Left ventricular ejection fraction, LVMi = Left ventricular mass index, E/e’ ratio = Early mitral inflow velocity to mitral annular early diastolic velocity ratio, GLS = Global longitudinal strain, GAS = Global area strain, GRS = Global radial strain. (Figure presented.)

TidsskriftInternational Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 2024

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© The Author(s) 2024.

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