Oral glucose has little or no effect on appetite and satiety sensations despite a significant gastrointestinal response

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The effect of oral glucose-induced release of gastrointestinal hormones on satiety and appetite independently of prevailing plasma glucose excursions is unknown. The objective is to investigate the effect of oral glucose on appetite and satiety sensations as compared to isoglycemic IV glucose infusion (IIGI) in healthy volunteers.

A crossover study involving two study days for each participant.

Nineteen healthy participants (6 women, mean age 55.1 [SD 14.2] years; mean body mass index 26.7 [SD 2.2] kg/m2).

Each participant underwent a 3-h 50-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and, on a subsequent study day, an IIGI mimicking the glucose excursions from the OGTT. On both study days, appetite and satiety were indicated regularly on visual analog scale (VAS), and blood was drawn regularly for measurement of pancreatic and gut hormones.

Primary outcomes
Difference in appetite and satiety sensations during OGTT and IIGI.

Circulating concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (P < .0001), glucagon-like peptide 1 (P < .0001), insulin (P < .0001), C-peptide (P < .0001), and neurotensin (P = .003) increased significantly during the OGTT as compared to the IIGI, whereas glucagon responses were similarly suppressed (P = .991). Visual analog scale-assessed ratings of hunger, satiety, fullness, thirst, well-being, and nausea, respectively, were similar during OGTT and IIGI whether assessed as mean 0–3-h values or area under the curves. For both groups, a similar, slow increase in appetite and decrease in satiation were observed. Area under the curve, for prospective food consumption (P = .049) and overall appetite score (P = .044) were slightly lower during OGTT compared to IIGI, whereas mean 0–3-h values were statistically similar for prospective food consumption (P = .053) and overall appetite score (P = .063).

Despite eliciting robust responses of appetite-reducing and/or satiety-promoting gut hormones, we found that oral glucose administration has little or no effect on appetite and satiety as compared to an IIGI, not affecting the release of appetite-modulating hormones.
TidsskriftEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Udgave nummer6
Sider (fra-til)619-626
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 2023

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
The study was supported by unrestricted grants from Abbvie and the Novo Nordisk Foundation, Alfred Helsteds og Eli Møllers Legat, C. C. Klestrup og hustru Henriette Klestrups Mindelegat, Carl og Ellen Hertz legat til dansk læge- og naturvidenskab, Fonden af 1870, Psoriasis Forskningsfonden, and Aase og Ejnar Danielsens Fond.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of European Society of Endocrinology. All rights reserved.

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