Oxidative Crosslinking of Peptides and Proteins: Mechanisms of Formation, Detection, Characterization and Quantification

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Covalent crosslinks within or between proteins play a key role in determining the structure and function of proteins. Some of these are formed intentionally by either enzymatic or molecular reactions and are critical to normal physiological function. Others are generated as a consequence of exposure to oxidants (radicals, excited states or two-electron species) and other endogenous or external stimuli, or as a result of the actions of a number of enzymes (e.g., oxidases and peroxidases). Increasing evidence indicates that the accumulation of unwanted crosslinks, as is seen in ageing and multiple pathologies, has adverse effects on biological function. In this article, we review the spectrum of crosslinks, both reducible and non-reducible, currently known to be formed on proteins; the mechanisms of their formation; and experimental approaches to the detection, identification and characterization of these species.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)1-31
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

    Research areas

  • Aggregation, Crosslink, Di-tryptophan, Di-tyrosine, Dimerization, Disulfides, Mass spectrometry, Protein oxidation, Proteomics, Radicals, Thiols

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ID: 290179836