GIP-derived GIP receptor antagonists – a review of their role in GIP receptor pharmacology

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Surprisingly, agonists, as well as antagonists of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR), are currently being used or investigated as treatment options for type 2 diabetes and obesity – and both, when combined with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonism, enhance GLP-1-induced glycemia and weight loss further. This paradox raises several questions regarding not only the mechanisms of actions of GIP but also the processes engaged during the activation of both the GIP and GLP-1 receptors. Here, we provide an overview of studies of the properties and actions of peptide-derived GIPR antagonists, focusing on GIP(3-30)NH2, a naturally occurring N- and C-terminal truncation of GIP(1−42). GIP(3−30)NH2 was the first GIPR antagonist administered to humans. GIP(3−30)NH2 and a few additional antagonists, like Pro3-GIP, have been used in both in vitro and in vivo studies to elucidate the molecular and cellular consequences of GIPR inhibition, desensitization, and internalization and, at a larger scale, the role of the GIP system in health and disease. We provide an overview of these studies combined with recent knowledge regarding the effects of naturally occurring variants of the GIPR system and species differences within the GIP system to enhance our understanding of the GIPR as a drug target.
Original languageEnglish
Article number171212
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2024

ID: 389094267