Diminished insulin-mediated forearm blood flow and muscle glucose uptake in young men with low birth weight

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BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in young men with LBW (n = 22) and controls (n = 22). METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and endothelial function was studied with venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of adenosine and acetylcholine, before and during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. RESULTS: Forearm blood flow response to systemic hyperinsulinemia was diminished in LBW compared to controls (p < 0.05). Fractional arteriovenous glucose extraction was similar, and consequently insulin-stimulated forearm glucose clearance was diminished in LBW compared with controls (0.8 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.36 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), respectively, p < 0.05). Forearm blood flow response to adenosine and acetylcholine with or without insulin stimulation did not differ between groups. Whole-body glucose uptake was lower in LBW than controls (8.7 +/- 0.5 and 9.1 +/- 0.6 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1) lean body mass); however, this was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Forearm blood flow response to insulin is impaired in LBW, whereas the response to adenosine and acetylcholine is preserved. The impaired insulin-mediated increase in bulk flow in LBW may be due to an impairment of insulin-mediated capillary recruitment independent of - or preceding - whole-body insulin resistance in LBW subjects.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Vascular Research
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)139-47
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Bibliographical note

Keywords: Acetylcholine; Adenosine; Adult; Biological Transport; Blood Glucose; Case-Control Studies; Endothelium, Vascular; Forearm; Glucose Clamp Technique; Humans; Hyperemia; Hyperinsulinism; Infant, Low Birth Weight; Infant, Newborn; Inflammation Mediators; Infusions, Intra-Arterial; Insulin; Insulin Resistance; Male; Muscle, Skeletal; Plethysmography; Regional Blood Flow; Time Factors; Vasodilation; Vasodilator Agents

ID: 18787683