Acute Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction on Glycemia, Lipemia and Appetite Regulating Hormones in Normal-Weight to Obese Subjects

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Amirsalar Agertoft Samkani, Mads J Skytte, Mads N Thomsen, Arne Astrup, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens Juul Holst, Sten Madsbad, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Thure Krarup, Steen B Haugaard

Postprandial responses to food are highly dependent on the macronutrient composition of the diet. We investigated the acute effects of transition from the recommended moderately high carbohydrate (HC) diet towards a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, lipemia, and appetite-regulating hormones in non-diabetic adults. Fourteen subjects, including five males (Mean ± SD: age 62 ± 6.5; BMI 32 ± 7.6 kg/m 2; hemoglobin A1c (HbA 1c) 40 ± 3.0 mmol/mol; HOMA2-IR 2.1 ± 0.9) were included in this randomized, cross-over study. Iso-caloric diets were consumed for two consecutive days with a median wash-out period of 21 days (range 2–8 weeks) between diets (macronutrient energy composition: CRHP/HC; 31%/54% carbohydrate, 29%/16% protein, 40%/30% fat). Postprandial glucose, insulin secretion rate (ISR), triglycerides (TGs), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and satiety ratings were assessed after ingestion of breakfast (Br) and lunch (Lu), and gut hormones and glucagon were assessed after ingestion of Br. Compared with the HC diet, the CRHP diet reduced peak glucose concentrations (Br 11%, p = 0.024; Lu 11%, p < 0.001), glucose excursions (Br 80%, p = 0.20; Lu 85%, p < 0.001), and ISR (Br 31%; Lu 64%, both p < 0.001) whereas CRHP, as compared with HC, increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (Br 27%, p = 0.015) and glucagon values (Br 249%, p < 0.001). NEFA and TG levels increased in the CRHP diet as compared with the HC diet after Br, but no difference was found after Lu (NEFA Br 22%, p < 0.01; TG Br 42%, p = 0.012). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity, insulin clearance, cholecystokinin values, and subjective satiety ratings were unaffected. It is possible to achieve a reduction in postprandial glycemia and insulin without a deleterious effect on beta-cell glucose sensitivity by substituting part of dietary carbohydrate with iso-caloric protein and fat in subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The metabolic effects are more pronounced after the second meal.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1285
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
ISSN2072-6643
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018

    Research areas

  • The Faculty of Science - Carbohydrate reduction, Postprandial glucose metabolism, Second-meal effect
  • Aged, Appetite Regulation, Biomarkers/blood, Blood Glucose/metabolism, Cross-Over Studies, Denmark, Diet, High-Protein Low-Carbohydrate, Female, Gastrointestinal Hormones/blood, Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism, Humans, Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism, Insulin/blood, Lipids/blood, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity/blood, Postprandial Period, Satiety Response, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, Postprandial glucose metabolism, Carbohydrate reduction, Second-meal effect, carbohydrate reduction, postprandial glucose metabolism, second-meal effect

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