Acute Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction on Glycemia, Lipemia and Appetite Regulating Hormones in Normal-Weight to Obese Subjects

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Acute Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction on Glycemia, Lipemia and Appetite Regulating Hormones in Normal-Weight to Obese Subjects. / Samkani, Amirsalar Agertoft; Skytte, Mads J; Thomsen, Mads N; Astrup, Arne; Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens Juul; Madsbad, Sten; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik; Krarup, Thure; Haugaard, Steen B.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 10, No. 9, 1285, 09.2018, p. 1-14.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Samkani, AA, Skytte, MJ, Thomsen, MN, Astrup, A, Deacon, CF, Holst, JJ, Madsbad, S, Rehfeld, JF, Krarup, T & Haugaard, SB 2018, 'Acute Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction on Glycemia, Lipemia and Appetite Regulating Hormones in Normal-Weight to Obese Subjects', Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 9, 1285, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091285

APA

Samkani, A. A., Skytte, M. J., Thomsen, M. N., Astrup, A., Deacon, C. F., Holst, J. J., ... Haugaard, S. B. (2018). Acute Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction on Glycemia, Lipemia and Appetite Regulating Hormones in Normal-Weight to Obese Subjects. Nutrients, 10(9), 1-14. [1285]. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091285

Vancouver

Samkani AA, Skytte MJ, Thomsen MN, Astrup A, Deacon CF, Holst JJ et al. Acute Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction on Glycemia, Lipemia and Appetite Regulating Hormones in Normal-Weight to Obese Subjects. Nutrients. 2018 Sep;10(9):1-14. 1285. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091285

Author

Samkani, Amirsalar Agertoft ; Skytte, Mads J ; Thomsen, Mads N ; Astrup, Arne ; Deacon, Carolyn F ; Holst, Jens Juul ; Madsbad, Sten ; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik ; Krarup, Thure ; Haugaard, Steen B. / Acute Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction on Glycemia, Lipemia and Appetite Regulating Hormones in Normal-Weight to Obese Subjects. In: Nutrients. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 9. pp. 1-14.

Bibtex

@article{c09f1f0b04714b179d3517737d4c61a2,
title = "Acute Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction on Glycemia, Lipemia and Appetite Regulating Hormones in Normal-Weight to Obese Subjects",
abstract = "Postprandial responses to food are highly dependent on the macronutrient composition of the diet. We investigated the acute effects of transition from the recommended moderately high carbohydrate (HC) diet towards a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, lipemia, and appetite-regulating hormones in non-diabetic adults. Fourteen subjects, including five males (Mean ± SD: age 62 ± 6.5; BMI 32 ± 7.6 kg/m 2; hemoglobin A1c (HbA 1c) 40 ± 3.0 mmol/mol; HOMA2-IR 2.1 ± 0.9) were included in this randomized, cross-over study. Iso-caloric diets were consumed for two consecutive days with a median wash-out period of 21 days (range 2–8 weeks) between diets (macronutrient energy composition: CRHP/HC; 31{\%}/54{\%} carbohydrate, 29{\%}/16{\%} protein, 40{\%}/30{\%} fat). Postprandial glucose, insulin secretion rate (ISR), triglycerides (TGs), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and satiety ratings were assessed after ingestion of breakfast (Br) and lunch (Lu), and gut hormones and glucagon were assessed after ingestion of Br. Compared with the HC diet, the CRHP diet reduced peak glucose concentrations (Br 11{\%}, p = 0.024; Lu 11{\%}, p < 0.001), glucose excursions (Br 80{\%}, p = 0.20; Lu 85{\%}, p < 0.001), and ISR (Br 31{\%}; Lu 64{\%}, both p < 0.001) whereas CRHP, as compared with HC, increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (Br 27{\%}, p = 0.015) and glucagon values (Br 249{\%}, p < 0.001). NEFA and TG levels increased in the CRHP diet as compared with the HC diet after Br, but no difference was found after Lu (NEFA Br 22{\%}, p < 0.01; TG Br 42{\%}, p = 0.012). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity, insulin clearance, cholecystokinin values, and subjective satiety ratings were unaffected. It is possible to achieve a reduction in postprandial glycemia and insulin without a deleterious effect on beta-cell glucose sensitivity by substituting part of dietary carbohydrate with iso-caloric protein and fat in subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The metabolic effects are more pronounced after the second meal.",
keywords = "The Faculty of Science, Carbohydrate reduction, Postprandial glucose metabolism, Second-meal effect, Aged, Appetite Regulation, Biomarkers/blood, Blood Glucose/metabolism, Cross-Over Studies, Denmark, Diet, High-Protein Low-Carbohydrate, Female, Gastrointestinal Hormones/blood, Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism, Humans, Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism, Insulin/blood, Lipids/blood, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity/blood, Postprandial Period, Satiety Response, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, Postprandial glucose metabolism, Carbohydrate reduction, Second-meal effect, carbohydrate reduction, postprandial glucose metabolism, second-meal effect",
author = "Samkani, {Amirsalar Agertoft} and Skytte, {Mads J} and Thomsen, {Mads N} and Arne Astrup and Deacon, {Carolyn F} and Holst, {Jens Juul} and Sten Madsbad and Rehfeld, {Jens Frederik} and Thure Krarup and Haugaard, {Steen B}",
note = "CURIS 2018 NEXS 322",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
doi = "10.3390/nu10091285",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "1--14",
journal = "Nutrients",
issn = "2072-6643",
publisher = "M D P I AG",
number = "9",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction on Glycemia, Lipemia and Appetite Regulating Hormones in Normal-Weight to Obese Subjects

AU - Samkani, Amirsalar Agertoft

AU - Skytte, Mads J

AU - Thomsen, Mads N

AU - Astrup, Arne

AU - Deacon, Carolyn F

AU - Holst, Jens Juul

AU - Madsbad, Sten

AU - Rehfeld, Jens Frederik

AU - Krarup, Thure

AU - Haugaard, Steen B

N1 - CURIS 2018 NEXS 322

PY - 2018/9

Y1 - 2018/9

N2 - Postprandial responses to food are highly dependent on the macronutrient composition of the diet. We investigated the acute effects of transition from the recommended moderately high carbohydrate (HC) diet towards a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, lipemia, and appetite-regulating hormones in non-diabetic adults. Fourteen subjects, including five males (Mean ± SD: age 62 ± 6.5; BMI 32 ± 7.6 kg/m 2; hemoglobin A1c (HbA 1c) 40 ± 3.0 mmol/mol; HOMA2-IR 2.1 ± 0.9) were included in this randomized, cross-over study. Iso-caloric diets were consumed for two consecutive days with a median wash-out period of 21 days (range 2–8 weeks) between diets (macronutrient energy composition: CRHP/HC; 31%/54% carbohydrate, 29%/16% protein, 40%/30% fat). Postprandial glucose, insulin secretion rate (ISR), triglycerides (TGs), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and satiety ratings were assessed after ingestion of breakfast (Br) and lunch (Lu), and gut hormones and glucagon were assessed after ingestion of Br. Compared with the HC diet, the CRHP diet reduced peak glucose concentrations (Br 11%, p = 0.024; Lu 11%, p < 0.001), glucose excursions (Br 80%, p = 0.20; Lu 85%, p < 0.001), and ISR (Br 31%; Lu 64%, both p < 0.001) whereas CRHP, as compared with HC, increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (Br 27%, p = 0.015) and glucagon values (Br 249%, p < 0.001). NEFA and TG levels increased in the CRHP diet as compared with the HC diet after Br, but no difference was found after Lu (NEFA Br 22%, p < 0.01; TG Br 42%, p = 0.012). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity, insulin clearance, cholecystokinin values, and subjective satiety ratings were unaffected. It is possible to achieve a reduction in postprandial glycemia and insulin without a deleterious effect on beta-cell glucose sensitivity by substituting part of dietary carbohydrate with iso-caloric protein and fat in subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The metabolic effects are more pronounced after the second meal.

AB - Postprandial responses to food are highly dependent on the macronutrient composition of the diet. We investigated the acute effects of transition from the recommended moderately high carbohydrate (HC) diet towards a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, lipemia, and appetite-regulating hormones in non-diabetic adults. Fourteen subjects, including five males (Mean ± SD: age 62 ± 6.5; BMI 32 ± 7.6 kg/m 2; hemoglobin A1c (HbA 1c) 40 ± 3.0 mmol/mol; HOMA2-IR 2.1 ± 0.9) were included in this randomized, cross-over study. Iso-caloric diets were consumed for two consecutive days with a median wash-out period of 21 days (range 2–8 weeks) between diets (macronutrient energy composition: CRHP/HC; 31%/54% carbohydrate, 29%/16% protein, 40%/30% fat). Postprandial glucose, insulin secretion rate (ISR), triglycerides (TGs), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and satiety ratings were assessed after ingestion of breakfast (Br) and lunch (Lu), and gut hormones and glucagon were assessed after ingestion of Br. Compared with the HC diet, the CRHP diet reduced peak glucose concentrations (Br 11%, p = 0.024; Lu 11%, p < 0.001), glucose excursions (Br 80%, p = 0.20; Lu 85%, p < 0.001), and ISR (Br 31%; Lu 64%, both p < 0.001) whereas CRHP, as compared with HC, increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (Br 27%, p = 0.015) and glucagon values (Br 249%, p < 0.001). NEFA and TG levels increased in the CRHP diet as compared with the HC diet after Br, but no difference was found after Lu (NEFA Br 22%, p < 0.01; TG Br 42%, p = 0.012). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity, insulin clearance, cholecystokinin values, and subjective satiety ratings were unaffected. It is possible to achieve a reduction in postprandial glycemia and insulin without a deleterious effect on beta-cell glucose sensitivity by substituting part of dietary carbohydrate with iso-caloric protein and fat in subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The metabolic effects are more pronounced after the second meal.

KW - The Faculty of Science

KW - Carbohydrate reduction

KW - Postprandial glucose metabolism

KW - Second-meal effect

KW - Aged

KW - Appetite Regulation

KW - Biomarkers/blood

KW - Blood Glucose/metabolism

KW - Cross-Over Studies

KW - Denmark

KW - Diet, High-Protein Low-Carbohydrate

KW - Female

KW - Gastrointestinal Hormones/blood

KW - Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism

KW - Humans

KW - Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism

KW - Insulin/blood

KW - Lipids/blood

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Obesity/blood

KW - Postprandial Period

KW - Satiety Response

KW - Time Factors

KW - Treatment Outcome

KW - Postprandial glucose metabolism

KW - Carbohydrate reduction

KW - Second-meal effect

KW - carbohydrate reduction

KW - postprandial glucose metabolism

KW - second-meal effect

U2 - 10.3390/nu10091285

DO - 10.3390/nu10091285

M3 - Journal article

VL - 10

SP - 1

EP - 14

JO - Nutrients

JF - Nutrients

SN - 2072-6643

IS - 9

M1 - 1285

ER -

ID: 202511610