Skap2, a candidate gene for type 1 diabetes, regulates b-cell apoptosis and glycemic control in newly diagnosed patients
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The single nucleotide polymorphism rs7804356 located in the Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 2 (SKAP2) gene is associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D), suggesting SKAP2 as a causal candidate gene. The objective of the study was to investigate if SKAP2 has a functional role in the b-cells in relation to T1D. In a cohort of children with newly diagnosed T1D, rs7804356 predicted glycemic control and residual b-cell function during the 1st year after diagnosis. In INS-1E cells and rat and human islets, proinflammatory cytokines reduced the content of SKAP2. Functional studies revealed that knockdown of SKAP2 aggravated cytokine-induced apoptosis in INS-1E cells and primary rat b-cells, suggesting an antiapoptotic function of SKAP2. In support of this, overexpression of SKAP2 afforded protection against cytokine-induced ap-optosis, which correlated with reduced nuclear content of S536-phosphorylated nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) subunit p65, lower nitric oxide production, and diminished CHOP expression indicative of decreased endoplasmic reticu-lum stress. Knockdown of CHOP partially counteracted the increase in cytokine-induced apoptosis caused by SKAP2 knockdown. In conclusion, our results suggest that SKAP2 controls b-cell sensitivity to cytokines possibly by affecting the NF-kB–inducible nitric oxide synthase– endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.
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|Published - 2021