Selenium-containing amino acids are targets for myeloperoxidase-derived hypothiocyanous acid: determination of absolute rate constants and implications for biological damage
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Elevated MPO (myeloperoxidase) levels are associated with multiple human inflammatory pathologies. MPO catalyses the oxidation of Cl-, Br- and SCN- by H2O2 to generate the powerful oxidants hypochlorous acid (HOCl), hypobromous acid (HOBr) and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) respectively. These species are antibacterial agents, but misplaced or excessive production is implicated in tissue damage at sites of inflammation. Unlike HOCl and HOBr, which react with multiple targets, HOSCN targets cysteine residues with considerable selectivity. In the light of this reactivity, we hypothesized that Sec (selenocysteine) residues should also be rapidly oxidized by HOSCN, as selenium atoms are better nucleophiles than sulfur. Such oxidation might inactivate critical Sec-containing cellular protective enzymes such as GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and TrxR (thioredoxin reductase). Stopped-flow kinetic studies indicate that seleno-compounds react rapidly with HOSCN with rate constants, k, in the range 2.8×10(3)-5.8×10(6) M-1·s-1 (for selenomethionine and selenocystamine respectively). These values are ~6000-fold higher than the corresponding values for H2O2, and are also considerably larger than for the reaction of HOSCN with thiols (16-fold for cysteine and 80-fold for selenocystamine). Enzyme studies indicate that GPx and TrxR, but not glutathione reductase, are inactivated by HOSCN in a concentration-dependent manner; k for GPx has been determined as ~5×105 M-1·s-1. Decomposed HOSCN did not induce inactivation. These data indicate that selenocysteine residues are oxidized rapidly by HOSCN, with this resulting in the inhibition of the critical intracellular Sec-dependent protective enzymes GPx and TrxR.
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2012|
- Amino Acids, Erythrocytes, Glutathione Peroxidase, Humans, Kinetics, Male, Molecular Structure, Oxidation-Reduction, Peroxidase, Selenium, Thiocyanates, Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase