Responses of gut and pancreatic hormones, bile acids, and fibroblast growth factor-21 differ to glucose, protein, and fat ingestion after gastric bypass surgery

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Postprandial gut hormone responses change after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and we investigated the impact of glucose, protein, and fat (with and without pancreas lipase inhibition) on plasma responses of gut and pancreas hormones, bile acids, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) after RYGB and in nonoperated control subjects. In a randomized, crossover study 10 RYGB operated and 8 healthy weight-matched control subjects were administered 4 different 4-h isocaloric (200 kcal) liquid meal tests containing >90 energy (E)% of either glucose, protein (whey protein), or fat (butter with and without orlistat). The primary outcome was glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion (area under the curve above baseline). Secondary outcomes included responses of peptide YY (PYY), glucose- dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), glicentin, neurotensin, ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, bile acids, and FGF-21. In the RYGB group the responses of GLP-1, GIP, glicentin, FGF-21, and C-peptide were increased after glucose compared with the other meals. The neurotensin and bile acids responses were greater after fat, while the glucagon and CCK responses were greater after protein ingestion. Furthermore, compared with control subjects, RYGB subjects had greater responses of total PYY after glucose, glucagon after glucose and fat, glicentin after glucose and protein, and GLP-1 and neurotensin after all meals, while GIP and CCK responses were lower after fat. Ghrelin responses did not differ between meals or between groups. Orlistat reduced all hormone responses to fat ingestion, except for ghrelin in the RYGB group. In conclusion, after RYGB glucose is a more potent stimulator of most gut hormones, especially for the marked increased secretion of GLP-1 compared with fat and protein.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Volume318
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)G661-G672
ISSN0193-1857
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

    Research areas

  • Bile acids, Carbohydrate, FGF21, Gut hormones, Protein, RYGB

ID: 247029226