We examined whether plasma concentrations of nonglucose insulin secretagogues are associated with prehepatic insulin secretion rates (ISR) in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, lipodystrophic patients (LIPO). Additionally, the negative feedback of insulin on ISR was evaluated. ISR were estimated by deconvolution of plasma C-peptide concentrations during fasting (basal) and during the last 30 min of a 120-min euglycemic insulin clamp (40 mU.m(-2).min(-1)). Eighteen normoglycemic LIPO were compared with 25 normoglycemic HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy (controls). Thirty minutes before start of the clamp, a bolus of glucose was injected intravenously to stimulate endogenous insulin secretion. Insulin sensitivity index (SiRd) was estimated from glucose tracer analysis. LIPO displayed increased basal ISR (69%), clamp ISR (114%), basal insulin (130%), and clamp insulin (32%), all P < or = 0.001, whereas SiRd was decreased (57%, P < 0.001). In LIPO, ISRbasal correlated significantly with basal insulin, alanine, and glucagon (all r > 0.65, P < 0.01), but not with glucose. In control subjects, ISR(basal) correlated significantly with insulin, glucagon, and glucose (all r > 0.41, P < 0.05), but not with alanine. In LIPO, ISRclamp correlated significantly with clamp free fatty acids (FFA), alanine, triglyceride, and glucagon (all r > 0.51, P < 0.05). In control subjects, ISRclamp correlated with clamp triglyceride (r = 0.45, P < 0.05). Paradoxically, in LIPO, ISRclamp correlated positively with clamp insulin (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), which suggests an absent negative feedback of insulin on ISR. Our data support evidence that lipodystrophic, nondiabetic, HIV-infected patients exhibit increased ISR, which can be partially explained by an impaired negative feedback of insulin on beta-cells and an increased stimulation of ISR by FFA, alanine, triglyceride, and glucagon.
Keywords: Adipose Tissue; Adult; Alanine; Anthropometry; Blood Glucose; Body Composition; Body Mass Index; C-Peptide; Feedback; Glucagon; HIV Infections; HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents; Insulin; Insulin Resistance; Islets of Langerhans; Male; Middle Aged; Triglycerides