Insufficient sleep predicts poor weight loss maintenance after one year

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STUDY OBJECTIVES: Insufficient sleep may attenuate weight loss, but the role of sleep in weight loss maintenance is unknown. Since weight regain after weight loss remains a major obstacle in obesity treatment, we investigated whether insufficient sleep predicts weight regain during weight loss maintenance.

METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, two-by-two factorial study, 195 adults with obesity completed an eight-week low-calorie diet and were randomly assigned to one-year weight loss maintenance with or without exercise and liraglutide 3.0mg/day or placebo. Sleep duration and quality were measured before and after the low-calorie diet and during weight maintenance using wrist-worn accelerometers (GENEActiv) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. To test associations between insufficient sleep and weight regain, participants were stratified at randomization into subgroups according to sleep duration (</≥6 h/night) or sleep quality (PSQI score ≤/>5).

RESULTS: After a diet-induced 13.1 kg weight loss, participants with short sleep duration at randomization regained 5.3 kg body weight (P=.0008) and had less reduction in body fat percentage compared with participants with normal sleep duration (P=.007) during the one-year weight maintenance phase. Participants with poor sleep quality before the weight loss regained 3.5 kg body weight compared with good quality sleepers (P=.010). During the weight maintenance phase, participants undergoing liraglutide treatment displayed increased sleep duration compared with placebo after 26 weeks (5 vs. -15 min/night) but not after one year. Participants undergoing exercise treatment preserved the sleep quality improvements attained from the initial weight loss.

CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep duration or poor sleep quality was associated with weight regain after weight loss in adults with obesity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberzsac295
JournalSleep
Volume46
Issue number5
Number of pages12
ISSN0161-8105
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

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© Sleep Research Society 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society.

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