Glycation and glycoxidation of low-density lipoproteins by glucose and low-molecular mass aldehydes. Formation of modified and oxidized particles
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Patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from an increased incidence of complications including cardiovascular disease and cataracts; the mechanisms responsible for this are not fully understood. One characteristic of such complications is an accumulation of advanced glycation end-products formed by the adduction of glucose or species derived from glucose, such as low-molecular mass aldehydes, to proteins. These reactions can be nonoxidative (glycation) or oxidative (glycoxidation) and result in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to a form that is recognized by the scavenger receptors of macrophages. This results in the accumulation of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters within macrophages and the formation of foam cells, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. The nature of the LDL modifications required for cellular recognition and unregulated uptake are poorly understood. We have therefore examined the nature, time course, and extent of LDL modifications induced by glucose and two aldehydes, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde. It has been shown that these agents modify Arg, Lys and Trp residues of the apoB protein of LDL, with the extent of modification induced by the two aldehydes being more rapid than with glucose. These processes are rapid and unaffected by low concentrations of copper ions. In contrast, lipid and protein oxidation are slow processes and occur to a limited extent in the absence of added copper ions. No evidence was obtained for the stimulation of lipid or protein oxidation by glucose or methylglyoxal in the presence of copper ions, whereas glycolaldehyde stimulated such reactions to a modest extent. These results suggest that the earliest significant events in this system are metal ion-independent glycation (modification) of the protein component of LDL, whilst oxidative events (glycoxidation or direct oxidation of lipid or proteins) only occur to any significant extent at later time points. This 'carbonyl-stress' may facilitate the formation of foam cells and the vascular complications of diabetes.
|European Journal of Biochemistry
|Number of pages
|Published - Sep 2003
- Aldehydes, Amino Acids, Antioxidants, Apolipoproteins B, Arteriosclerosis, Copper, Glucose, Glycosylation, Humans, Lipoproteins, LDL, Molecular Weight, Oxidation-Reduction, Pyruvaldehyde, Time Factors, alpha-Tocopherol