Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Is a Pancreatic Polypeptide Secretagogue in Humans
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Background: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been suggested to stimulate the secretion of pancreatic polypeptide (PP), an islet hormone thought to regulate gut motility, appetite, and glycemia. Objective: To determine whether human GIP1-42 (hGIP) stimulates PP secretion. Method: As glycemia modulates the secretion of PP, we measured plasma PP concentrations from 2 studies in healthy men (n = 10) and in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n = 12), where hGIP1-42 had been administered intravenously during fasting glycemia, hyperglycemia (12 mmol/L), and insulin-induced hypoglycemia (targets: 2.5 mmol/L [healthy]; 3.5 mmol/L [T2D]). Porcine GIP1-42 (pGIP) was also infused intra-arterially in isolated porcine pancreata (n = 4). Results: Mean fasting plasma glucose concentrations were approximately 5 mmol/L (healthy) and approximately 8 mmol/L (T2D). At fasting glycemia, PP concentrations were higher during intravenous hGIP1-42 infusion compared with saline in healthy men (mean [standard error of the mean, SEM], net incremental areas under the curves (iAUCs)[0-30min], 403  vs -6  pmol/L × min; P = 0.004) and in patients with T2D (905  vs -96  pmol/L × min; P = 0.009). During hyperglycemic clamping, mean [SEM] PP concentrations were significantly higher during hGIP1-42 infusion compared with saline in patients with T2D (771  vs -183  pmol/L × min; P = 0.001), but not in healthy individuals (-8  vs -57  pmol/L × min; P = 0.69). When plasma glucose levels were declining in response to exogenous insulin, mean [SEM] PP concentrations were higher during hGIP1-42 infusion compared with saline in healthy individuals (294  vs -82  pmol/L × min; P = 0.0025), but not significantly higher in patients with T2D (586  vs -120 ; P = 0.070). At target hypoglycemia, PP levels surged in both groups during both hGIP1-42 and saline infusions. In isolated pancreata, pGIP1-42 increased mean [SEM] PP output in the pancreatic venous effluent (baseline vs infusion, 24 vs 79  pmol/min x min; P = 0.044). Conclusion: GIP1-42 increases plasma PP secretion in healthy individuals, patients with T2D, and isolated porcine pancreata. Hyperglycemia blunts the stimulatory effect of hGIP1-42 in healthy individuals, but not in patients with T2D.
|Journal||Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
- GIP, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, humans, pancreatic polypeptide, PP, type 2 diabetes