GIP affects hepatic fat and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, but not white adipose tissue transcriptome in T1D

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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been proposed to exert insulin-independent effects on lipid and bone metabolism. We investigated the effect of a 6-day s.c. GIP infusion on circulating lipids, white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), hepatic fat content, inflammatory markers, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and bone homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes.

METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, 20 men with type 1 diabetes underwent a 6-day continuous s.c. infusion with GIP (6 pmol/kg/min) and placebo (saline), with an interposed 7-day washout period.

RESULTS: During GIP infusion, participants (26 ± 8 years [mean ± SD]; BMI 23.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2; HbA1c 51 ± 10 mmol/mol [6.8 ± 3.1%]) experienced transiently increased circulating concentrations of NEFA (p = 0.0005), decreased RER (p = 0.009), indication of increased fatty acid β-oxidation, and decreased levels of the bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide (p = 0.000072) compared to placebo. After six days of GIP infusion, hepatic fat content was increased by 12.6% (p = 0.007) and supraclavicular skin temperature, a surrogate indicator of BAT activity, was increased by 0.29°C (p < 0.000001) compared to placebo. WAT transcriptomic profile as well as circulating lipid species, proteome, markers of inflammation, and bone homeostasis were unaffected.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Six days s.c. GIP infusion in men with type 1 diabetes transiently decreased bone resorption and increased NEFA and β-oxidation. Further, hepatic fat content, and supraclavicular skin temperature were increased without affecting WAT transcriptomics, the circulating proteome, lipids, or inflammatory markers.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)3261–3274
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

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