Elevated levels of iodide promote peroxidase-mediated protein iodination and inhibit protein chlorination

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At inflammatory sites, immune cells generate oxidants including H₂O₂. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), released by activated leukocytes employs H₂O₂ and halide/pseudohalides to form hypohalous acids that mediate pathogen killing. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a major species formed. Excessive or misplaced HOCl formation damages host tissues with this linked to multiple inflammatory diseases. Previously (Redox Biology, 2020, 28, 101331) we reported that iodide (I⁻) modulates MPO-mediated protein damage by decreasing HOCl generation with concomitant hypoiodous acid (HOI) formation. HOI may however impact on protein structure, so in this study we examined whether and how HOI, from peroxidase/H₂O₂/I⁻ systems ± Cl⁻, modifies proteins. Experiments employed MPO and lactoperoxidase (LPO) and multiple proteins (serum albumins, anastellin), with both chemical (intact protein and peptide mass mapping, LC-MS) and structural (SDS-PAGE) changes assessed. LC-MS analyses revealed dose-dependent iodination of anastellin and albumins by LPO/H2O2 with increasing I⁻. Incubation of BSA with MPO/H2O2/Cl⁻ revealed modest chlorination (Tyr286, Tyr475, ∼4 %) and Met modification. Lower levels of these species, and extensive iodination at specific Tyr and His residues (>20 % modification with ≥10 μM I⁻) were detected with increasing I⁻. Anastellin dimerization was inhibited by increasing I⁻, but less marked changes were observed with albumins. These data confirm that I⁻ competes with Cl⁻ for MPO and is an efficient HOCl scavenger. These processes decrease protein chlorination and oxidation, but result in extensive iodination. This is consistent with published data on the presence of iodinated Tyr on neutrophil proteins. The biological implications of protein iodination relative to chlorination require further clarification.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Pages (from-to)207-221
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Authors

    Research areas

  • 3-Chlorotyrosine, 3-Iodotyrosine, Chlorination, Hypochlorous acid, Iodination, Methionine sulfoxide, myeloperoxidase, Post-translational modifications, Protein oxidation

ID: 392571550