Effects of carbohydrate restriction on body weight and glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial of efficacy in real-life settings

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A fully provided, hypocaloric, carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet compared to a hypocaloric conventional diabetes (CD) diet for 6 weeks improved glycemic control to a greater extent in face of an intended 6% weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present 24-week extension of that study reports on the efficacy of CRHP and CD diets in a real-life setting. Sixty-five individuals with T2DM who completed the initial 6-week fully provided diet period (% energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was 30/30/40 in CRHP, and 50/17/33 in CD) continued a free-living, dietician guided 24-week period of which 59 individuals completed. The CRHP compared to CD group reported a 4% lower carbohydrate intake and had higher urea excretion by 22% (both p ≤ 0.05) at week 30, suggesting less difference in carbohydrate and protein intake between groups during the 24-week extension compared to week 6. The loss of body weight during the initial 6 weeks was maintained in both groups during the 24-week extension (−5.5 ± 4.5 and −4.6 ± 4.8 kg) as well as HbA1c (−8.4 ± 6.2 and −8.4 ± 6.9 mmol/mol) with no significant differences between groups. The additional benefits on glucoregulation harnessed by carbohydrate restriction under full diet provision for 6 weeks combined with titrated weight loss could not be maintained in a real-life setting of self-prepared diet aiming on similar diets for 6 months.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5244
Issue number24
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The current study was supported by grants from Arla Foods amba, The Danish Dairy Research Foundation, The Novo Nordisk Foundation and Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg Frederiksberg. The funders were not involved in the design, conduct, and interpretation of the study. No restrictions regarding publication were imposed by any party.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

    Research areas

  • Carbohydrate restriction, Glucose metabolism, Lipid metabolism, Macronutrients, Type 2 diabetes

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