A review of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Hot topics from randomised controlled trials

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The first clinical study to investigate effects of dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 (DPP‐4) inhibition was published in 2002, and since then, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that DPP‐4 inhibitors are efficacious, safe and well‐tolerated. This review will focus upon RCTs which have investigated DPP‐4 inhibitors in patient groups which are often under‐represented or excluded from typical phase 3 clinical trials. Large cardiovascular (CV) safety outcome trials in patients with established CV disease have confirmed that DPP‐4 inhibitors are not associated with any additional CV risk in these already‐at‐high‐risk individuals, while raising awareness of any uncommon adverse events, such as heart failure hospitalization seen in one of the trials. Studies in patients with kidney disease have shown DPP‐4 inhibitors to be efficacious without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia, irrespective of the degree of renal impairment, while data from the large CV trials as well as smaller RCTs have even pointed towards potential renoprotective effects such individuals. The use of DPP‐4 inhibitors with insulin when therapy requires intensification may be beneficial without affecting the incidence or severity of hypoglycaemia, with these effects also being replicated in patients with chronic kidney disease, for whom other agents may not be suitable. Attention is now turning towards exploring the potential utility of DPP‐4 inhibitors in other circumstances, including for in‐hospital management of hyperglycaemia and in other metabolic disorders. Together, these RCTs raise the possibility that in the future, DPP‐4 inhibitors may have a broader use which may extend beyond glycaemic control in the typical type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patient seen in general practice and may encompass conditions other than T2DM.
Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Volume20
Issue numberSuppl. 1
Pages (from-to)34-46
ISSN1463-1326
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

ID: 195511596