A low-gluten diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiome of healthy Danish adults

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Lea Benedicte Skov Hansen, Henrik Munch Roager, Nadja Buus Søndertoft, Rikke Juul Gøbel, Mette Bredal Kristensen, Mireia Vallès-Colomer, Sara Vieira-Silva, Sabine Ibrügger, Mads Vendelbo Lind, Rasmus Baadsgaard Mærkedahl, Martin Iain Bahl, Mia Linda Madsen, Jesper Havelund, Gwen Falony, Inge Tetens, Trine Nielsen, Kristine Højgaard Allin, Henrik Lund Frandsen, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Juul Holst & 32 more Morten H Sparholt, Jesper Holck, Andreas Blennow, Janne Marie Moll, Anne S Meyer, Camilla Hoppe, Jørgen H Poulsen, Vera Carvalho, Domenico Sagnelli, Marlene Danner Dalgaard, Anders Fogh Christensen, Magnus Lydolph, Alistair B Ross, Silas G Villas-Bôas, Susanne Brix, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Karsten Buschard, Allan René Linneberg, Jüri Johannes Rumessen, Claus Thorn Ekstrøm, Christian Ritz, Karsten Kristiansen, H Bjørn Nielsen, Henrik Vestergaard, Nils J Færgeman, Jeroen Raes, Hanne Frøkiær, Torben Hansen, Lotte Lauritzen, Ramneek Gupta, Tine Rask Licht, Oluf Borbye Pedersen

Adherence to a low-gluten diet has become increasingly common in parts of the general population. However, the effects of reducing gluten-rich food items including wheat, barley and rye cereals in healthy adults are unclear. Here, we undertook a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial involving 60 middle-aged Danish adults without known disorders with two 8-week interventions comparing a low-gluten diet (2 g gluten per day) and a high-gluten diet (18 g gluten per day), separated by a washout period of at least six weeks with habitual diet (12 g gluten per day). We find that, in comparison with a high-gluten diet, a low-gluten diet induces moderate changes in the intestinal microbiome, reduces fasting and postprandial hydrogen exhalation, and leads to improvements in self-reported bloating. These observations suggest that most of the effects of a low-gluten diet in non-coeliac adults may be driven by qualitative changes in dietary fibres.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4630
JournalNature Communications
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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