Numerous studies have attested to the importance of the extreme C terminus of G protein alpha subunits in determining their selectivity of receptor recognition. We have previously reported that a highly conserved glycine residue within linker I is important for constraining the fidelity of receptor recognition by Galpha(q) proteins. Herein, we explored whether both modules (linker I and extreme C terminus) interact cooperatively in switching G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-to-effector specificity and created as models mutant Galpha(q) proteins in which glycine was replaced with various amino acids and the C-terminal five Galpha(q) residues with the corresponding Galpha(i) or Galpha(s) sequence. Coupling properties of the mutated Galpha(q) proteins were determined after coexpression with a panel of 13 G(i)-and G(s) -selective receptors and compared with those of Galpha proteins modified in only one module. Galpha proteins modified in both modules are significantly more efficacious in channeling non-G(q) -selective receptors to G(q)-mediated signaling events compare with those containing each module alone. Additive effects of both modules were observed even if individual modules lacked an effect on GPCR-to-effector specificity. Dually modified Galpha proteins were also superior in conferring high-affinity agonist sites onto a coexpressed GPCR in the absence, but not in the presence, of guanine nucleotides. Together, our data suggest that receptor-G protein coupling selectivity involves cooperative interactions between the extreme C terminus and linker I of Galpha proteins and that distinct determinants of selectivity exist for individual receptors.
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Blotting, Western; COS Cells; Calcium; Cell Membrane; Cercopithecus aethiops; Conserved Sequence; DNA; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits; Glycine; Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate); Inositol Phosphates; Ligands; Molecular Sequence Data; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; Signal Transduction; Transfection