8-chloroadenosine alters the metabolic profile and downregulates antioxidant and DNA damage repair pathways in macrophages

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The exposure of RNA and DNA nucleobases to the oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) results in the generation of different stable chlorinated products. These chlorinated nucleobases are formed in vivo, particularly in chronic inflammatory pathologies, which are characterized by the overproduction of HOCl by myeloperoxidase. As such, chlorinated nucleosides are used as biomarkers of inflammation. However, these compounds have also attracted attention as potential chemotherapeutic agents with 8-chloro-adenosine (8ClA), for example, currently in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological cancers, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 8ClA has mainly RNA-directed effects in malignant cells, with exposure resulting in ATP depletion and apoptotic cell death. Whether 8ClA has significant reactivity with nonmalignant cells has not been widely studied. Here we show that prolonged incubation of J774A.1 macrophage-like cells with 8ClA results in the perturbation of cellular metabolism and apoptotic cell death. These effects are associated with an accumulation of 8-chloroadenosine triphosphate (8Cl-ATP), an effect not seen in experiments utilizing other chlorinated nucleosides. Exposure of the macrophages to 8ClA did not significantly change basal mitochondrial respiration or glycolysis but resulted in an increase in maximal mitochondrial respiration as well as spare respiratory capacity within these cells. Additionally, 8ClA exposure also altered the mRNA expression of a range of antioxidant and DNA damage repair genes in the macrophages in a manner consistent with a reduction in the capacity of the cells to cope with oxidative stress and repair DNA damage. Taken together, these results provide new insight into pathways by which the production of HOCl during chronic inflammation could perturb immune cell function and may also have implications for the use of 8ClA as a chemotherapeutic drug.
Original languageEnglish
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)402-413
Publication statusPublished - 2020

ID: 239518283