The naturally occurring GIP(1-30)NH2 is a GIP receptor agonist in humans

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OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an important regulator of glucose and bone metabolism. In rodents, the naturally occurring GIP variant, GIP(1-30)NH2, has shown similar effects as full-length GIP (GIP(1-42)), but its effects in humans are unsettled. Here, we investigated the actions of GIP(1-30)NH2 compared to GIP(1-42) on glucose and bone metabolism in healthy men and in isolated human pancreatic islets.

METHODS: Nine healthy men completed three separate three-step glucose clamps (0-60 minutes at fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level, 60-120 minutes at 1.5× FPG, and 120-180 minutes at 2× FPG) with infusion of GIP(1-42) (4 pmol/kg/min), GIP(1-30)NH2 (4 pmol/kg/min), and saline (9 mg/mL) in randomised order. Blood was sampled for measurement of relevant hormones and bone turnover markers. Human islets were incubated with low (2 mmol/L) or high (20 mmol/L) d-glucose with or without GIP(1-42) or GIP(1-30)NH2 in three different concentrations for 30 minutes, and secreted insulin and glucagon were measured.

RESULTS: Plasma glucose (PG) levels at FPG, 1.5× FPG, and 2× FPG were obtained by infusion of 1.45 g/kg, 0.97 g/kg, and 0.6 g/kg of glucose during GIP(1-42), GIP(1-30)NH2, and saline, respectively (P = .18), and were similar on the three experimental days. Compared to placebo, GIP(1-30)NH2 resulted in similar glucagonotropic, insulinotropic, and carboxy-terminal type 1 collagen crosslinks-suppressing effects as GIP(1-42). In vitro experiments on human islets showed similar insulinotropic and glucagonotropic effects of the two GIP variants.

CONCLUSIONS: GIP(1-30)NH2 has similar effects on glucose and bone metabolism in healthy individuals and in human islets in vitro as GIP(1-42).

Original languageEnglish
Article numberlvac015
JournalEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of (ESE) European Society of Endocrinology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

    Research areas

  • Male, Humans, Blood Glucose/metabolism, Glucagon, Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide, Insulin, Glucose

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