OBJECTIVES: We examined whether insulin-resistant lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with known high fasting prehepatic insulin secretion rates (FISRs) displayed alterations in first-phase prehepatic insulin response to intravenous glucose (ISREG0-10 min). METHODS: Eighteen normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected (LIPO) patients and 25 normoglycaemic nonlipodystrophic HIV-infected patients (controls) were included in the study. The prehepatic insulin secretion rate was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations, and insulin sensitivity (SIRd) was estimated by the glucose clamp technique. The disposition index (Di=ISREG0-10 min x SIRd) was calculated to estimate the beta-cell response relative to insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: FISR was increased by 69% (P<0.001), whereas median Di was decreased by 75% (P<0.01), primarily as a result of a reduction of SI(Rd) by 60% (P<0.001) in LIPO patients compared with controls. Three LIPO groups were identified arbitrarily according to their FISR and ISREG0-10 min values relative to those of controls. Four LIPO patients displayed high FISR [+3 standard deviations (SD), P<0.001], high ISREG0-10 min (+3 SD, P<0.001) and low SIRd (P<0.01), suggesting an intact B-cell capacity to compensate insulin resistance; six LIPO patients exhibited high FISR (+3SD, P<0.001), low ISREG0-10min (-1 SD, P=0.01), and low SIRd (P<0.01), suggesting depletion of readily releasable insulin stores; the remaining eight LIPO patients and controls displayed identical FISR and ISREG0-10 min. Increased concentrations of the nonglucose insulin secretagogues triglyceride (+124%), alanine (+35%) and glucagon (+88%), and also lactate (+96%) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (+62%) were observed in the 10 LIPO patients with aberrations in FISR and ISREG0-10 min compared with the remaining HIV-infected patients (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Plasma triglyceride, alanine, glucagon, lactate and TNF-alpha may be associated with alterations in the first-phase prehepatic insulin secretion response to intravenous glucose in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients.
Keywords: Adult; Alanine; C-Peptide; Case-Control Studies; Glucagon; Glucose; Glucose Clamp Technique; HIV-1; HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome; Humans; Infusions, Intravenous; Insulin; Insulin Resistance; Insulin-Secreting Cells; Lactates; Male; Middle Aged; Stimulation, Chemical; Triglycerides; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha