Enhanced Ca2+-Dependent SK-Channel Gating and Membrane Trafficking in Human Atrial Fibrillation
Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › peer-review
Background: Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+(SK)-channel inhibitors have antiarrhythmic effects in animal models of atrial fibrillation (AF), presenting a potential novel antiarrhythmic option. However, the regulation of SK-channels in human atrial cardiomyocytes and its modification in patients with AF are poorly understood and were the object of this study. Methods: Apamin-sensitive SK-channel current (ISK) and action potentials were recorded in human right-atrial cardiomyocytes from sinus rhythm control (Ctl) patients or patients with (long-standing persistent) chronic AF (cAF). Results: ISKwas significantly higher, and apamin caused larger action potential prolongation in cAF- versus Ctl-cardiomyocytes. Sensitivity analyses in an in silico human atrial cardiomyocyte model identified IK1and ISKas major regulators of repolarization. Increased ISKin cAF was not associated with increases in mRNA/protein levels of SK-channel subunits in either right- or left-atrial tissue homogenates or right-atrial cardiomyocytes, but the abundance of SK2 at the sarcolemma was larger in cAF versus Ctl in both tissue-slices and cardiomyocytes. Latrunculin-A and primaquine (anterograde and retrograde protein-trafficking inhibitors) eliminated the differences in SK2 membrane levels and ISKbetween Ctl- and cAF-cardiomyocytes. In addition, the phosphatase-inhibitor okadaic acid reduced ISKamplitude and abolished the difference between Ctl- and cAF-cardiomyocytes, indicating that reduced calmodulin-Thr80 phosphorylation due to increased protein phosphatase-2A levels in the SK-channel complex likely contribute to the greater ISKin cAF-cardiomyocytes. Finally, rapid electrical activation (5 Hz, 10 minutes) of Ctl-cardiomyocytes promoted SK2 membrane-localization, increased ISKand reduced action potential duration, effects greatly attenuated by apamin. Latrunculin-A or primaquine prevented the 5-Hz-induced ISK-upregulation. Conclusions: ISKis upregulated in patients with cAF due to enhanced channel function, mediated by phosphatase-2A-dependent calmodulin-Thr80 dephosphorylation and tachycardia-dependent enhanced trafficking and targeting of SK-channel subunits to the sarcolemma. The observed AF-associated increases in ISK, which promote reentry-stabilizing action potential duration shortening, suggest an important role for SK-channels in AF auto-promotion and provide a rationale for pursuing the antiarrhythmic effects of SK-channel inhibition in humans.
|Publication status||Published - 2023|
© 2023 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.
- actinin, apamin, atrial fibrillation, atrial remodeling, calmodulin, protein phosphatase-2A, protein transport