Ability of hypochlorous acid and N-chloramines to chlorinate DNA and its constituents

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Myeloperoxidase is a heme enzyme released by activated phagocytes that is responsible for the generation of the strong oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Although HOCl has potent bactericidal properties and plays an important role in the human immune system, this oxidant also causes damage to tissues, particularly under inflammatory conditions. There is a strong link between chronic inflammation and the incidence of many cancers, which may be associated with the ability of HOCl and related oxidants such as N-chloramines to damage DNA. However, in contrast to HOCl, little is known about the reactivity of N-chloramines with DNA and its constituents. In this study, we examine the ability of HOCl and various N-chloramines to form chlorinated base products on nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA, and in cellular systems. Experiments were performed with N-chloramines formed on Nalpha-acetyl-histidine (His-C), Nalpha-acetyl-lysine (Lys-C), glycine (Gly-C), taurine (Tau-C), and ammonia (Mono-C). Treatment of DNA and related materials with HOCl and His-C resulted in the formation of 5-chloro-2'-deoxycytidine (5CldC), 8-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (8CldA) and 8-chloro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8CldG). With the nucleosides, 8CldG was the favored product in each case, and HOCl was the most efficient chlorinating agent. 5Cl(d)C was the most abundant product on exposure of the nucleotides and DNA to HOCl and His-C, with only low levels of chlorinated products observed with Lys-C, Gly-C, Tau-C, and Mono-C. 5CldC was also formed on exposure of smooth muscle cells to either HOCl or His-C. Cellular RNA was also a target for HOCl and His-C, with evidence for the formation of 5-chloro-cytidine (5ClC). This study shows that HOCl and the model N-chloramine, His-C, are able to chlorinate cellular genetic material, which may play a role in the development of various inflammatory cancers.

Original languageEnglish
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)1293-302
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2010
Externally publishedYes

    Research areas

  • Animals, Cells, Cultured, Chloramines, DNA, DNA Damage, Halogenation, Humans, Hypochlorous Acid, Rats, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

ID: 174497539