Electrocardiographic Findings, Arrhythmias, and Left Ventricular Involvement in Familial ST-Depression Syndrome
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BACKGROUND: Familial ST-depression syndrome is an inherited disease characterized by persistent, nonischemic ST-deviations, and risk of arrhythmias and heart failure. We aimed at further characterizing the ECG, arrhythmias, and structural characteristics associated with this novel syndrome.
METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from consecutive families with familial ST-depression Syndrome in Denmark. ECG features, prevalence and type of arrhythmias, occurrence of systolic dysfunction, and medium-term outcome were analyzed.
RESULTS: Forty affected individuals (43% men; mean age at diagnosis 49.1 years) from 14 apparently unrelated families with ≥2 affected members were included. Autosomal dominant inheritance was observed in all families. The ECG phenotype seemed to develop in prepuberty and the ST-deviations were persistent and most pronounced in leads V4/V5/II, respectively. Serial ECG analyses showed stable to slow progression of the ECG phenotype. Exercise accentuated the ST-deviations with a maximum difference between rest/stress (mean) of -117 μV in lead V5. During a mean follow-up of 9.3±7.1 years 5 (13%) patients developed sustained ventricular arrhythmias or (aborted) sudden cardiac death, 10 (25%) developed atrial fibrillation, 2 (5%) other supraventricular arrhythmias, and 10 (25%) were diagnosed with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50%. The ventricular arrhythmias were polymorphic with relatively short-coupled premature ventricular contractions at onset (300-360 ms); no QT prolongation was observed. Seven patients had at least one catheter ablation; 5 for supraventricular arrhythmias and 2 for ventricular arrhythmias. Males experienced more arrhythmic end points than females ( P<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: The familial ST-depression ECG phenotype is stable to slowly progressive after medium-term follow-up. Clinically, both supra- and ventricular arrhythmias are common; as are some degree of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Familial ST-depression represent a novel inherited cause of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
|Tidsskrift||Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology|
|Status||Udgivet - 2022|