Copper ion / H2O2 oxidation of Cu/Zn-Superoxide dismutase: Implications for enzymatic activity and antioxidant action

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Copper ion-catalyzed oxidation of yeast SOD1 (ySOD1) was examined to determine early oxidative modifications, including oxidation of a crucial disulfide bond, and the structural and functional repercussions of these events. The study used distinct oxidative conditions: Cu2+/H2O2, Cu2+/H2O2/AscH(-) and Cu2+/H2O2/glucose. Capillary electrophoresis experiments and quantification of protein carbonyls indicate that ySOD1 is highly susceptible to oxidative modification and that changes can be detected within 0.1 min of the initiation of the reaction. Oxidation-induced structural perturbations, characterized by circular dichroism, revealed the formation of partially-unfolded ySOD1 species in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with these structural changes, pyrogallol assay indicates a partial loss of enzymatic activity. ESI-MS analyses showed seven distinct oxidized ySOD1 species under mild oxidation within 0.1 min. LC/MS analysis after proteolytic digestion demonstrated that the copper-coordinating active site histidine residues, His47 and His49, were converted into 2-oxo-histidine. Furthermore, the Cu and Zn bridging residue, His64 is converted into aspartate/asparagine. Importantly, the disulfide-bond Cys58-Cys147 which is critical for the structural and functional integrity of ySOD1 was detected as being oxidized at Cys147. We propose, based on LC/MS analyses, that disulfide-bond oxidation occurs without disulfide bond cleavage. Modifications were also detected at Met85 and five surface-exposed Lys residues. Based on these data we propose that the Cys58-Cys147 bond may act as a sacrificial target for oxidants and protect ySOD1 from oxidative inactivation arising from exposure to Cu2+/H2O2 and auto-inactivation during extended enzymatic turnover.
TidsskriftRedox Biology
Antal sider15
StatusUdgivet - 2019

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